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电动膨胀循环变推力液体火箭发动机推力控制方案

梁涛 胡润生 李清廉 崔朋 宋杰 陈兰伟

梁涛, 胡润生, 李清廉, 等. 电动膨胀循环变推力液体火箭发动机推力控制方案[J]. 航空动力学报, 2023, 38(12):2957-2972 doi: 10.13224/j.cnki.jasp.20210377
引用本文: 梁涛, 胡润生, 李清廉, 等. 电动膨胀循环变推力液体火箭发动机推力控制方案[J]. 航空动力学报, 2023, 38(12):2957-2972 doi: 10.13224/j.cnki.jasp.20210377
LIANG Tao, HU Runsheng, LI Qinglian, et al. Thrust control scheme for electric expander cycle of variable thrust liquid rocket engine[J]. Journal of Aerospace Power, 2023, 38(12):2957-2972 doi: 10.13224/j.cnki.jasp.20210377
Citation: LIANG Tao, HU Runsheng, LI Qinglian, et al. Thrust control scheme for electric expander cycle of variable thrust liquid rocket engine[J]. Journal of Aerospace Power, 2023, 38(12):2957-2972 doi: 10.13224/j.cnki.jasp.20210377

电动膨胀循环变推力液体火箭发动机推力控制方案

doi: 10.13224/j.cnki.jasp.20210377
基金项目: 科技大学自主科研项目
详细信息
    作者简介:

    梁涛(1996-),男,硕士生,研究领域为推进系统动力学与控制。E-mail:cooper_nudt@163.com

    通讯作者:

    李清廉(1974-),男,教授,博士,研究领域为航空宇航推进理论与工程。E-mail:peakdreamer@163.com

  • 中图分类号: V433;V434

Thrust control scheme for electric expander cycle of variable thrust liquid rocket engine

  • 摘要:

    以电动膨胀循环变推力液体火箭发动机为研究对象,设计了一种适用于电动膨胀循环发动机的推力闭环控制方案,其次基于AMESim平台建立了控制系统仿真模型,验证了重要部组件模型的准确性,并基于电动机泵和涡轮泵动力学模型对PID控制器进行了参数整定,最后着重针对推力调节的阶跃信号和斜坡信号开展了控制仿真。结果表明:在推力变比5∶1全工况范围内,双PI控制器适用于电动膨胀循环发动机推力调节控制,系统不存在稳态误差,但是调节过程存在波动;针对调节过程而言,双PI控制器控制信号的比例输出振荡是控制目标波动的主因,而积分输出造成了控制目标的稳态误差;相比阶跃信号调节,双PI控制器跟踪斜坡信号的效果更好,因此实际使用中,应尽量考虑斜坡信号进行推力调节。

     

  • 图 1  开环控制和闭环控制结构

    Figure 1.  Open loop control and close loop control

    图 2  电动膨胀循环发动机系统方案

    Figure 2.  Electric expander cycle engine system scheme

    图 3  电动机物理示意图及其等效电路图

    Figure 3.  Physical schematic of motor and its equivalent circuit

    图 4  冷却通道分段模型

    Figure 4.  Sectional model of cooling channels

    图 5  矩形冷却通道

    Figure 5.  Rectangular cooling channels

    图 6  PID控制系统框架

    Figure 6.  Framework of PID control system

    图 7  PID控制器原理图

    Figure 7.  Principles of PID controller

    图 8  电动膨胀循环控制系统仿真模型

    Figure 8.  Simulation model of electric expander cycle control system

    图 9  泵动力学模型验证

    Figure 9.  Verification of pumps’s dynamic model

    图 10  不同整定参数下系统的单位阶跃响应曲线

    Figure 10.  Unit step response curve of the system under different tuning parameters

    图 11  不同整定参数系统的单位阶跃响应曲线

    Figure 11.  System step response under different parameters

    图 12  开环和闭环控制下测量室压和目标室压随时间变化曲线

    Figure 12.  Measured and target chamber pressure under open and closed loop control vs. time

    图 13  开环和闭环控制下测量混合比和目标混合比随时间变化曲线

    Figure 13.  Measured and target mixture ratio under open and closed loop control vs. time

    图 14  推力室入口推进剂流量随时间的变化曲线

    Figure 14.  Chamber inlet propellants mass flow rates vs. time

    图 15  燃料流量控制器限幅和不限幅输出信号随时间变化曲线

    Figure 15.  Saturation signal and unlimited signal of fuel flow controller vs. time

    图 16  冷却通道各分段气体体积分数随时间变化趋势

    Figure 16.  Gas volume fraction in section of cooling channels vs. time

    图 17  燃料泵后压力随时间变化趋势

    Figure 17.  Pressure behind fuel pump vs. time

    图 18  氧流量控制器限幅和不限幅输出信号随时间变化趋势

    Figure 18.  Saturation signal and unlimited signal of oxidizer flow controller vs. time

    图 19  斜坡信号下目标室压及测量室压值随时间变化曲线

    Figure 19.  Measured and target chamber pressure under ramp loop control vs. time

    图 20  推力室入口推进剂流量随时间变化曲线

    Figure 20.  Propellants mass flow rates of chamber vs. time

    图 21  燃料流量控制器限幅和不限幅控制信号随时间变化曲线

    Figure 21.  Saturation signal and unlimited signal of fuel flow controller vs. time

    图 22  燃料流量不限幅控制信号的比例和积分输出随时间变化曲线

    Figure 22.  Proportional and integral output of unlimited control signal of fuel flow vs. time

    图 23  目标混合比与测量混合比随时间的变化曲线

    Figure 23.  Measured and target mixture ratio vs. time

    图 24  斜坡信号下氧流量限幅和不限幅控制信号随时间的变化曲线

    Figure 24.  Saturation and unlimited signal of oxidizer flow controller under ramp signal vs. time

    图 25  斜坡信号下氧流量控制信号比例和积分输出随时间变化曲线

    Figure 25.  Proportional and integral output of unlimited control signal under ramp signal vs. time for oxygen mass flow rate

    图 26  混合信号下目标室压及测量室压值随时间变化曲线

    Figure 26.  Measured and target chamber pressure under mixed signal vs. time

    图 27  混合信号下目标混合比及测量混合比随时间的变化曲线

    Figure 27.  Measured and target mixture ratio under mixed signal vs. time

    表  1  技术指标

    Table  1.   System technical metrics

    输入参数数值 输入参数数值
    Fmax/kN20 Mratio3.20
    Tratio5∶1Isp/s360
    pcmax/MPa3.00oxmax/(kg/s)4.32
    ɛ220fmax/(kg/s)1.35
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  部组件关键参数

    Table  2.   Key parameters of components

    参数数值
    燃料储箱和氧储箱压力/MPa0.40
    氧储箱温度/K90
    燃料储箱温度/K111
    燃料管路内径/mm24
    氧管路内径/mm28
    推力室喉部直径/mm64.6
    燃烧室直径/mm130
    燃烧室特征长度/m1
    喷管转折处型面角/(º)20
    喷管出口扩张半角/(º)10
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  电动机参数

    Table  3.   Motor parameters

    参数数值
    输入电压Us/V0~540
    参考电压Usr/V340
    绕组电阻Rso0.6
    绕组修正系数σr/K−10.1
    绕组电导率Ls/(S/m)0.012
    反电动势和转矩减小常数Krt0 /(V·s/A/rad)0.0018
    反电动势和转矩系数修正系数σk/K−10.1
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  离心泵组件参数

    Table  4.   Centrifugal pump components parameters

    部组件参数氧路燃料路
    转子转动惯量J/(kg·m20.0010.01
    流体惯量If/104(kg·m422
    参考压头Hr/m3751722
    参考体积流量Qr /(m3/s)0.003980.00375
    参考转速Nr /(r/min)650012500
    参考效率ηr0.560.50
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  涡轮组件参数

    Table  5.   Turbine components parameters

    部组件参数数值
    涡轮直径Dtur/m0.2
    并联阀最大横截面积/mm2452.3
    参考开度0.208
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  推力室参数

    Table  6.   Thrust chamber parameters

    部组件参数氧路燃料路
    喷注器节流孔最大横截面积/mm2706.5314.0
    燃烧室体积Vc /L3.27
    长度/mm150
    喷管喷管出口到喉部距离/m1.26
    燃烧室入口到喉部距离/mm79.0
    冷却通道起始位置
    喷管半径/mm
    72.0
    内壁厚δw/mm1
    外壁厚δwe/mm2
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  冷却通道参数

    Table  7.   Cooling channel parameters

    参数第1段第2段第3段第4段第5段第6段
    长度Li/mm75.075.039.039.028.028.0
    矩形通高度Hi/mm3.03.03.03.03.03.0
    矩形通道数ntube808080808080
    肋宽/mm111111
    起点喷半径rai/mm65.065.065.056.032.350.0
    终点喷半径rbi/mm65.065.056.032.350.072.0
    起点矩形通道宽度wai/mm4.14.14.13.41.52.9
    终点矩形通道宽度wai/mm4.14.13.41.52.94.7
    节流孔压降系数888888
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  8  燃烧室动力学模型验证

    Table  8.   Verification of combustor’s dynamic model

    室压/MPa液氧/甲烷流量/(kg/s) 温度/K
    试验结果仿真结果 RPA结果仿真结果
    3.004.243/1.3264.141/1.29434163442
    1.502.183/0.6822.053/0.64233293457
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  9  不同控制器参数系统的性能指标

    Table  9.   System performance under different controller parameters

    参数超调量/%调整时间/s稳态误差
    Kp=201, Ki=867000.0500
    Kp =305, Ki=1175000.0330
    Kp =474, Ki=175605.40.0370
    Kp=555, Ki=2386011.50.0340
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  10  不同控制器参数系统的性能指标

    Table  10.   System performance under different controller parameters

    参数超调量/%调整时间/s稳态误差
    Kp=−0.163, Ki=−87.200.00230
    Kp =−0.267, Ki =−130.400.00120
    Kp =−0.408, Ki =−231.16.10.00160
    Kp =−0.511, Ki =−316.111.50.001340
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-07-18
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-08-31

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    /

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    返回