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超声速发动机LTO污染物排放特性预测分析

杨晓军 何虹霖

杨晓军, 何虹霖. 超声速发动机LTO污染物排放特性预测分析[J]. 航空动力学报, 2024, 39(8):20220503 doi: 10.13224/j.cnki.jasp.20220503
引用本文: 杨晓军, 何虹霖. 超声速发动机LTO污染物排放特性预测分析[J]. 航空动力学报, 2024, 39(8):20220503 doi: 10.13224/j.cnki.jasp.20220503
YANG Xiaojun, HE Honglin. Prediction and analysis of LTO pollutant emission characteristics of supersonic engine[J]. Journal of Aerospace Power, 2024, 39(8):20220503 doi: 10.13224/j.cnki.jasp.20220503
Citation: YANG Xiaojun, HE Honglin. Prediction and analysis of LTO pollutant emission characteristics of supersonic engine[J]. Journal of Aerospace Power, 2024, 39(8):20220503 doi: 10.13224/j.cnki.jasp.20220503

超声速发动机LTO污染物排放特性预测分析

doi: 10.13224/j.cnki.jasp.20220503
基金项目: 中国民航大学中央高校基本科研业务费项目(3122019187)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    杨晓军(1980-),男,教授、硕士生导师,博士,主要从事航空环境保护与节能减排研究。E-mail:xiaojunyoung@hotmail.com

    通讯作者:

    何虹霖(1998-),男,硕士生,主要从事发动机性能分析与污染物排放研究。E-mail:756606559@qq.com

  • 中图分类号: V239

Prediction and analysis of LTO pollutant emission characteristics of supersonic engine

  • 摘要:

    为合理地分析超声速发动机在起降着陆(landing and take-off,LTO)循环中的污染物排放特性,构建了基于CFM56-7B27核心机的超声速发动机模型。通过建立排放计算模型计算了LTO污染物排放指数(emission index,EI),并分析了其排放特性;研究爬升和慢车阶段污染物排放特性对LTO超声速模式标准设定的影响,进而确定更具代表性的LTO超声速模式标准。分析结果表明:不同LTO阶段的推力设置(thrust setting,TS)和模式时间(time in mode,TIM)对污染物排放特性的影响存在差异性;在LTO标准研究方面,60%额定推力、2 min模式时间的爬升点氮氧化物的排放质量/额定推力更接近于超声速爬升轨迹,慢车点TS在不低于10%额定推力时更能满足污染物(一氧化碳、未燃烧碳氢)排放特性所限制的燃烧效率要求,因此以60%额定推力、2 min模式时间作为LTO超声速模式爬升点标准、以TS不低于10%额定推力作为LTO超声速模式慢车点标准更为合理。

     

  • 图 1  LTO循环

    Figure 1.  LTO cycle

    图 2  基于CFM56-7B27核心机的超声速发动机模型

    Figure 2.  Supersonic Engine Model based on CFM56-7B27 core

    图 4  CFM56-7B系列发动机LTO Ie,CO-T3关系模型

    Figure 4.  LTO Ie,CO-T3 relationship model of CFM56-7B series engines

    图 3  CFM56-7B系列发动机LTO Ie,NOx-T3关系模型

    Figure 3.  LTO Ie,NOx-T3 relationship model of CFM56-7B series engines

    图 5  CFM56-7B系列发动机LTO Ie,UHC-T3关系模型

    Figure 5.  LTO Ie,UHC-T3 relationship model of CFM56-7B series engines

    图 6  超声速发动机模型与NASA STCA发动机模型的最大相对误差对比结果

    Figure 6.  Comparison results of maximum relative error between Supersonic Engine Model and NASA STCA engine model

    图 7  三类发动机LTO模式的推力-污染物排放指数关系图

    Figure 7.  Thrust-pollutant emission index relationship diagram for LTO mode of three types of engines

    图 8  基于不同LTO模式下Dp(NOx)/Foo对比图

    Figure 8.  Comparison diagram of the Dp(NOx)/Foo based on different LTO modes

    图 9  基于不同LTO模式下Dp(CO)/Foo对比图及部分放大图

    Figure 9.  Comparison diagram and partially enlarged diagram of the Dp(CO)/Foo based on different LTO modes

    图 10  基于不同LTO模式下Dp(UHC)/Foo对比图及部分放大图

    Figure 10.  Comparison diagram and partially enlarged diagram of the Dp(UHC)/Foo based on different LTO modes

    图 11  降噪爬升轨迹图

    Figure 11.  Diagram of the noise-reduced climbing trajectory

    图 12  降噪爬升轨迹和潜在LTO爬升点的累积Dp(NOx)/Foo

    Figure 12.  Accumulated Dp(NOx)/Foo of the noise-reduced climbing trajectory and potential LTO climbing points

    图 13  燃烧室效率与燃烧室负荷的关系

    Figure 13.  Relationship between combustor efficiency and combustor loading

    表  1  LTO亚声速模式标准定义

    Table  1.   Definition of LTO subsonic mode standard

    阶段 Ts/Foo)/% Mt/min
    起飞 100 0.7
    爬升 85 2.2
    进近 30 4.0
    慢车 7 26.0
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  LTO超声速模式标准定义

    Table  2.   Definition of LTO supersonic mode standard

    阶段 Ts/Foo)/% Mt/min
    起飞 100 1.2
    爬升 65 2.0
    下降 15 1.2
    进近 34 2.3
    慢车 5.8 26.0
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  超声速发动机模型在LTO亚声速模式的建模数据

    Table  3.   Modeling data of the Supersonic Engine Model in LTO subsonic mode

    阶段 Ts/Foo)/% 推力大小/kN Mt/min 燃烧室入口压力/kPa 燃烧室入口温度/K 燃油流量/(kg/s) 油气比
    起飞 100 73.922 0.7 2203.555 757.07 0.94199 0.01545
    爬升 85 62.834 2.2 1942.036 725.77 0.77599 0.01302
    进近 30 22.177 4 922.058 580.91 0.25945 0.00872
    慢车 7 5.175 26 529.46 493.57 0.09777 0.00717
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  超声速发动机模型在LTO超声速模式的建模数据

    Table  4.   Modeling data of the Supersonic Engine Model in LTO supersonic mode

    阶段 Ts/Foo)/% 推力大小/kN Mt/min 燃烧室入口压力/kPa 燃烧室入口温度/K 燃油流量/(kg/s) 油气比
    起飞 100 73.922 1.2 2203.555 757.07 0.94199 0.01545
    爬升 65 48.049 2 1559.392 678.95 0.56778 0.01023
    下降 15 11.088 1.2 673.811 528.1 0.15558 0.00796
    进近 34 25.133 2.3 985.791 592.78 0.29279 0.00896
    慢车 5.8 4.287 26 512.976 488.73 0.09166 0.007
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  CFM56-7B系列发动机LTO NOx排放指数

    Table  5.   LTO NOx emission index of CFM56-7B series engines

    发动机型号额定推力/kNIe,NOx/(g/kg)
    起飞爬升进近慢车
    CFM56-7B1886.714.8113.007.783.65
    CFM56-7B2091.615.6113.537.983.77
    CFM56-7B22101.017.4014.678.353.95
    CFM56-7B24107.618.9315.608.604.09
    CFM56-7B26117.021.7917.088.934.27
    CFM56-7B27121.423.9417.899.094.36
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  CFM56-7B系列发动机LTO CO排放指数

    Table  6.   LTO CO emission index of CFM56-7B series engines

    发动机型号额定推力/kNIe,CO/(g/kg)
    起飞爬升进近慢车
    CFM56-7B1886.70.170.285.5446.64
    CFM56-7B2091.60.150.235.0343.31
    CFM56-7B22101.00.160.174.1837.90
    CFM56-7B24107.60.180.153.6834.71
    CFM56-7B26117.00.250.163.0730.94
    CFM56-7B27121.40.310.172.8229.39
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  CFM56-7B系列发动机LTO UHC排放指数

    Table  7.   LTO UHC emission index of CFM56-7B series engines

    发动机型号额定推力/kNIe,UHC/(g/kg)
    起飞爬升进近慢车
    CFM56-7B1886.70.030.030.084.51
    CFM56-7B2091.60.030.030.083.84
    CFM56-7B22101.00.020.030.072.83
    CFM56-7B24107.60.020.030.062.30
    CFM56-7B26117.00.020.020.051.75
    CFM56-7B27121.40.030.020.051.54
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  8  超声速发动机模型在LTO亚声速模式下的排放指数

    Table  8.   Emission index of the Supersonic Engine Model in LTO subsonic mode

    阶段 $ I_{{\mathrm{e,NOx}}} $/(g/kg) $I_{{\mathrm{e,CO}}} $/(g/kg) $I_{{\mathrm{e,UHC}}} $/(g/kg)
    起飞 16.268 0.866 0.003
    爬升 13.584 1.095 0.004
    进近 7.717 4.838 0.044
    慢车 3.696 44.821 4.078
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  9  超声速发动机模型在LTO超声速模式下的排放指数

    Table  9.   Emission index of the Supersonic Engine Model in LTO supersonic mode

    阶段 $I_{{\mathrm{e,NOx}}} $/(g/kg) $I_{{\mathrm{e,CO}}} $/(g/kg) $I_{{\mathrm{e,UHC}}} $/(g/kg)
    起飞 16.268 0.866 0.003
    爬升 11.171 1.54 0.006
    下降 5.251 13.897 0.307
    进近 8.109 3.972 0.031
    慢车 3.534 58.779 7.485
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  10  降噪爬升轨迹定义

    Table  10.   Definition of the noise-reduced climbing trajectory

    轨迹名称 起飞阶段(Ts/Foo)/% 爬升阶段1 爬升阶段2 爬升阶段3
    高度范围/m Ts/Foo)/% 高度范围/m Ts/Foo)/% 高度范围/m Ts/Foo)/%
    无减推轨迹 100 10.668~914.4 100
    标准轨迹 100 10.668~584.7 100 584.7~914.4 65
    先进轨迹 100 10.668~15.3 100 15.3~544.1 85 544.1~914.4 65
    最小噪声减推轨迹 100 10.668~25 100 25~914.4 60
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  11  降噪爬升轨迹与潜在LTO爬升点之间的Dp/Foo对比

    Table  11.   Dp/Foo comparison between the noise-reduced climbing trajectory and potential LTO climbing points

    潜在的LTO
    爬升点工况
    轨迹与爬升点之间的相对误差值/%
    无减推
    轨迹
    标准
    轨迹
    先进
    轨迹
    最小噪声
    减推轨迹
    85%Foo/2.2 min 62.602 64.650 71.455 70.810
    85%Foo/2 min 58.862 61.115 68.600 67.891
    80%Foo/2.2 min 57.865 60.173 67.839 67.113
    80%Foo/2 min 53.652 56.19 64.623 63.824
    75%Foo/2.2 min 52.515 55.115 63.756 62.937
    75%Foo/2 min 47.767 50.627 60.131 59.231
    70%Foo/2.2 min 45.849 48.814 58.667 57.734
    70%Foo/2 min 40.434 43.696 54.534 53.507
    65%Foo/2.2 min 37.848 41.251 52.56 51.489
    65%Foo/2 min 31.632 35.376 47.816 46.637
    60%Foo/2.2 min 29.118 33 45.897 44.675
    60%Foo/2 min 22.03 26.3 40.487 39.143
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  12  超声速发动机模型在两种不同LTO模式下的慢车点燃烧室负荷系数

    Table  12.   LOADING of Supersonic Engine Model at idle point in two different LTO modes

    Ts/Foo)/% 空气流量/(kg/s) 燃烧室入口压力/kPa 燃烧室入口温度/K 燃烧室负荷系数/
    10−8 (kg/(s·Pa1.8·m3))
    5.8 13.088 512.976 488.73 1.082
    7 13.642 529.46 493.57 1.048
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  13  超声速发动机模型TS为10%Foo和13%Foo的燃烧室负荷系数

    Table  13.   LOADING for a Supersonic Engine Model with TS at 10%Foo and 13%Foo

    Ts/Foo)/% 空气流量/(kg/s) 燃烧室入口压力/kPa 燃烧室入口温度/K 燃烧室负荷系数/
    10−9 (kg/(s·Pa 1.8·m3))
    10 15.214 584.67 508.87 9.292
    13 17.165 635.575 520.37 8.681
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-07-12
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-11-30

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