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氮化铝陶瓷燃气舵仿真与试验

白澔烔 石仲仑 薛海峰 蔡红明

白澔烔, 石仲仑, 薛海峰, 等. 氮化铝陶瓷燃气舵仿真与试验[J]. 航空动力学报, 2024, 39(6):20210698 doi: 10.13224/j.cnki.jasp.20210698
引用本文: 白澔烔, 石仲仑, 薛海峰, 等. 氮化铝陶瓷燃气舵仿真与试验[J]. 航空动力学报, 2024, 39(6):20210698 doi: 10.13224/j.cnki.jasp.20210698
BAI Haotong, SHI Zhonglun, XUE Haifeng, et al. Numerical simulation and test of AlN ceramic jet vane[J]. Journal of Aerospace Power, 2024, 39(6):20210698 doi: 10.13224/j.cnki.jasp.20210698
Citation: BAI Haotong, SHI Zhonglun, XUE Haifeng, et al. Numerical simulation and test of AlN ceramic jet vane[J]. Journal of Aerospace Power, 2024, 39(6):20210698 doi: 10.13224/j.cnki.jasp.20210698

氮化铝陶瓷燃气舵仿真与试验

doi: 10.13224/j.cnki.jasp.20210698
详细信息
    作者简介:

    白澔烔(2001-),男,博士生,研究领域为固体火箭发动机与CFD仿真。E-mail:Baiht0201@nuaa.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: V433.9

Numerical simulation and test of AlN ceramic jet vane

  • 摘要:

    针对弹箭燃气舵轻量化问题,设计了基于高热导率氮化铝(AlN)陶瓷材料的新型燃气舵。为考察其可行性,建立了基于流固热耦合的非定常数值模拟方法,研究了氮化铝陶瓷燃气舵在不同舵偏角下的工作过程,并基于高温下陶瓷强度预测模型分析了燃气舵的抗热震能力。加工了氮化铝陶瓷燃气舵,开展了固体火箭发动机地面静态射流试验,并通过扫描电镜分析了试验结果。研究结果表明:数值仿真与试验结果基本一致,验证了数值模拟方法的有效性;对燃烧室总温为2284 K的固体火箭发动机,氮化铝陶瓷燃气舵可承受其燃气1 s内造成的最大机械冲击和热冲击;氮化铝陶瓷由于较高的热导率(理论达320 W/(m∙K)),有远优于常规结构陶瓷的抗热震性能,是一种良好的小型燃气舵选材。

     

  • 图 1  三维计算模型示意图

    Figure 1.  3D computational model diagram

    图 2  燃气舵坐标系图

    Figure 2.  Jet vane coordinate system diagram

    图 3  燃气舵舵面分区及相关术语

    Figure 3.  Partition and terminology of jet vane

    图 4  计算网格图

    Figure 4.  Computational grid diagram

    图 5  计算边界条件设置

    Figure 5.  Calculation boundary conditions setting diagram

    图 6  圆管温度云图对比

    Figure 6.  Comparison of temperature contour of cylinder

    图 7  燃气舵表面受力曲线

    Figure 7.  Surface force curve of jet vane

    图 8  受力峰值点处压强云图

    Figure 8.  Pressure contours at peak stress point

    图 9  t=0.001 s时刻流场温度云图

    Figure 9.  Temperature contour of flow at t=0.001 s

    图 10  氮化铝燃气舵陶瓷各剖面温度场云图

    Figure 10.  Temperature of AlN ceramic jet vanes in different sections

    图 11  氧化铝燃气舵陶瓷各剖面温度场云图

    Figure 11.  Temperature of Al2O3 ceramic jet vanes in different sections

    图 12  t = 0.2 s时刻1/2展长处燃气舵表面温度曲线

    Figure 12.  Surface temperature curve at 1/2 span of jet vanes at t = 0.2 s

    图 13  t = 0.2 s时刻燃气舵yoz平面最大主应力云图

    Figure 13.  Maximum principal stress contours in yoz section of jet vanes at t = 0.2 s

    图 14  0.2 s内燃气舵最大主应力及材料强度曲线

    Figure 14.  Maximum principal stress and material strength curve of jet vanes in 0.2 s

    图 15  1 s内燃气舵最大主应力、热应变及材料强度曲线

    Figure 15.  Maximum principal stress, thermal strain and material strength curve of jet vanes in 1 s

    图 16  t = 1 s时刻燃气舵1/2展长处温度曲线

    Figure 16.  Surface temperature curve at 1/2 span of jet vanes at t = 1 s

    图 17  t = 1 s时刻燃气舵位移量云图

    Figure 17.  Deformation of jet vane at t = 1 s

    图 18  试验用陶瓷燃气舵图像

    Figure 18.  Photograph of ceramics jet vanes for test

    图 19  发动机工作过程内弹道曲线

    Figure 19.  Internal ballistic curve of the motor during working process

    图 20  测试后陶瓷燃气舵图像

    Figure 20.  Apparent morphology ceramics jet vanes after test

    图 21  氮化铝陶瓷燃气舵上激光切割损伤

    Figure 21.  Laser cutting damage on AlN jet vane

    图 22  氮化铝陶瓷燃气舵断面不同位置处微观图像

    Figure 22.  Micro-morphology of different positions on section of AlN jet vane

    表  1  计算用陶瓷材料参数

    Table  1.   Parameters of ceramic materials for calculation

    材料参数 高导热氮化铝AlN 高纯氧化铝Al2O3
    E/GPa $ E=E_0-BT'{\mathrm{e}}^{- (T\mathrm{_{_m}}-273.15\; \mathrm{K}) /T'}+B_1[T'-B_2 (T_{\mathrm{m}}-273.15\; \mathrm{K}) +|T'-B_2 (T_{\mathrm{m}}-273.15\; \mathrm{K}) |]{\mathrm{e}}^{- (T_{\mathrm{m}}-273.15\; \mathrm{K}) /T'} $
    ρ/(g/cm3 3.26 3.98
    ν, B, B1, B2 0.23, 2.05, 0.975, 0.0129 0.22, 2.1441, 0.9278, 0.0352
    E0/GPa 314 400.3
    Tm/K 2785 (升华分解) 2323
    k/(W/(m∙K)) 6.812×10−5T 2−2.446T+386.22
    27.5−0.0289T (298~1 200 K)
    1.5 (1 200~2 327 K)
    cp/(J/(kg∙K))
    A1A2A3
    A1+A2×10−3T+A3×10−5T−2
    (787.00, 553.32, −192.78) (298~600 K)
    (1224.78, 28.585, −635.46) (600~1000 K)
    (1222.95, 9.49, −424.32) (1000~2000 K)
    A1+A2×10−3T+A3×10−5T−2
    (1018.15, 257.52, 285.20)(298~800 K)
    (1181.53, 97.18, −474.22) (800~2327 K)
    α1/10−6 K−1 1.68ln T − 6.3239 1.93ln T − 5.3167
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  陶瓷材料温度性强度参数

    Table  2.   Temperature-dependent strength parameters of ceramic materials

    材料参数 高导热氮化铝 高纯氧化铝

    σth/MPa
    ${\sigma _{{\mathrm{th}}}} = \sigma _{{\mathrm{th}}}^0{\left\{ {\displaystyle\frac{{E (T') }}{{{E_0}}}\left[ {1 - \displaystyle\frac{{\displaystyle\int_0^{T'} {{c_p} (T) {\text{d}}T} }}{{\displaystyle\int_0^{{T_{\mathrm{m}}}} {{c_p} (T) {\text{d}}T} }}} \right]} \right\}^{{1/2}}}$
    ${\sigma ^0_{{\mathrm{th}}}} $/MPa 350 350
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  受力峰值点处的静力学求解数据

    Table  3.   Static solution data at peak stress point

    材料 偏角/(°) 最大主应力/MPa 最大位移/μm 安全系数
    AlN 0 4.813 1.271 83.108
    20 34.687 25.62 11.532
    Al2O3 0 4.952 1.262 70.679
    20 35.103 24.81 8.468
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  常温下试验用陶瓷材料参数

    Table  4.   Parameters of ceramic materials for test at normal temperature

    材料参数 高导热氮化铝AlN 高纯氧化铝Al2O3
    E/GPa 320 300
    ρ/(g/cm3 3.3 3.7
    ν 0.23 0.22
    k/(W/(m∙K)) 200 24
    α1/10−6 (1/K) 4.6 7.5
    σth/MPa 320 300
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-12-09
  • 网络出版日期:  2024-01-24

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