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飞机热管防冰技术的研究现状及展望

李云单 陈小明 龚欢 李淼 连文磊

李云单, 陈小明, 龚欢, 等. 飞机热管防冰技术的研究现状及展望[J]. 航空动力学报, 2024, 39(10):20220771 doi: 10.13224/j.cnki.jasp.20220771
引用本文: 李云单, 陈小明, 龚欢, 等. 飞机热管防冰技术的研究现状及展望[J]. 航空动力学报, 2024, 39(10):20220771 doi: 10.13224/j.cnki.jasp.20220771
LI Yundan, CHEN Xiaoming, GONG Huan, et al. Research status and prospect of aircraft heat pipe anti-icing technology[J]. Journal of Aerospace Power, 2024, 39(10):20220771 doi: 10.13224/j.cnki.jasp.20220771
Citation: LI Yundan, CHEN Xiaoming, GONG Huan, et al. Research status and prospect of aircraft heat pipe anti-icing technology[J]. Journal of Aerospace Power, 2024, 39(10):20220771 doi: 10.13224/j.cnki.jasp.20220771

飞机热管防冰技术的研究现状及展望

doi: 10.13224/j.cnki.jasp.20220771
详细信息
    作者简介:

    李云单(1980-),男,高级工程师,硕士,主要从事航空发动机流动传热领域研究

    通讯作者:

    连文磊(1982-),男,副教授,博士,主要从事飞行器热管理研究。E-mail:wenlian@nuaa.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: V244.15;TK172.4

Research status and prospect of aircraft heat pipe anti-icing technology

  • 摘要:

    为深入认识和发展热管防冰技术,重点论述了不同类型热管在飞机防冰领域上的研究现状,总结了环路热管、旋转热管和重力热管在飞机机翼和发动机前端部件防冰上的理论和实验研究成果,梳理了防冰用环路热管和旋转热管的主要特点,并对热管防冰技术的发展方向进行了展望。结果表明:热管防冰技术的研究仍处于起步阶段,大多停留在热管防冰系统设计及其可行性验证;提出后续研究应以实验为主,采用数值计算和实验研究相结合的方法,重点关注热管防冰系统在机上环境和结冰气象条件下的运行特性,明确热管工质特性、工作温度、充液率等因素对热管防冰系统传热性能的影响等建议,为热管防冰系统的设计优化及实际应用提供理论和实验支撑。

     

  • 图 1  传统环路热管系统示意图[34]

    Figure 1.  Schematic diagram of traditional loop heat pipe system[34]

    图 2  整流罩热管防冰系统示意图[15]

    Figure 2.  Schematic diagram of loop heat pipe anti-icing on engine cowling [15]

    图 3  热管冷凝器在整流罩上的安装[16]

    Figure 3.  Installation of heat pipe condenser on engine cowling[16]

    图 4  环路热管在全球鹰无人机上的位置[15]

    Figure 4.  Position of loop heat pipe on Global Hawk UAV[15]

    图 5  发动机整流罩热管防冰实验[16]

    Figure 5.  Heat pipe anti-icing experiment of engine cowling[16]

    图 6  防冰系统与实验系统[21]

    Figure 6.  Anti-icing system and experimental system[21]

    图 7  不同飞行姿态下环路热管防冰系统实验研究

    Figure 7.  Experimental study on loop heat pipe anti-icing system under different flight attitudes

    图 8  轴向旋转热管结构形式及工作原理

    Figure 8.  Structures and working principle of axially rotating heat pipe

    图 9  旋转热管冷却稳态温度曲线[49]

    Figure 9.  Steady state cooling temperature curve of rotating heat pipe[49]

    图 10  旋转热管帽罩防冰系统示意图(半锥形)[25]

    Figure 10.  Schematic diagram of rotating heat pipe nose cone anti-icing system (half taper)[25]

    图 11  旋转热管帽罩防冰系统示意图(锥形和阶梯形)[27]

    Figure 11.  Schematic diagram of rotating heat pipe nose cone anti-icing system (taper and step) [27]

    图 12  旋转热管帽罩防冰系统示意图(全锥形)[28]

    Figure 12.  Schematic diagram of rotating heat pipe nose cone anti-icing system (full taper) [28]

    图 13  旋转热管帽罩防冰系统样机[31]

    Figure 13.  Prototype anti-icing system of rotating heat pipe nose cone[31]

    图 14  旋转热管帽罩防冰特性[31]

    Figure 14.  Anti-icing characteristics of rotating heat pipe nose cone[31]

    图 15  多冷凝器可变导重力热管示意图[55]

    Figure 15.  Schematic diagram of multi-condenser variable conductance gravity heat pipe[55]

    图 16  重力热管系统样机示意图[56]

    Figure 16.  Schematic diagram of gravity heat pipe system prototype[56]

    图 17  热管涡轮叶片冷却概念结构图[57]

    Figure 17.  Conceptual structure of heat pipe turbine blade cooling[57]

    图 18  路面防冰系统示意图[61]

    Figure 18.  Schematic diagram of road anti-icing system[61]

    图 19  风力叶片热管防冰实验系统示意图(单位:mm)[66]

    Figure 19.  Schematic diagram of wind blade heat pipe anti-icing experimental system (unit: mm)[66]

    表  1  传统防冰和除冰方法及缺点

    Table  1.   Traditional anti-icing and de-icing methods and drawbacks

    防冰和除冰方法实施方式缺点
    液体防冰表面喷洒防冰液腐蚀性强、防冰效率有限
    机械除冰气动胀管除冰需要维修、笨重、除冰不彻底
    热气防冰发动机引气推力减小,油耗增加
    电热防冰电能转化为热能高品位能量消耗大
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  防冰用环路热管主要特点

    Table  2.   Main characteristics of loop heat pipes for anti-icing

    来源 工作液 工作温度/℃ 环路热管材料 结构特点 传热量或热载荷/W
    Anderson等人[11] 甲醇/乙醇 –28~340 传统型带泵回路 2930(最大值)
    Anderson等人[13] 甲苯/甲醇 30~60 250~300
    Phillips等人[14] 10~80 传统型 1500(最大值)
    Phillips等人[15-16] –20~90 不锈钢 多冷凝器型,带旁路阀 3800
    杨鹏[17] –20~232 传统型,10根环路热管 500(单根)
    Valle等人[19-20] –20~60 多冷凝器型,带开关阀和三通阀 100~400
    Zhao等人[21] 乙醇 不锈钢 双储液器型 10~180
    Su等人[22] 40%、60%、80%、100%
    乙醇-水混合液
    –20~150 不锈钢 双储液器型 100~300
    Su等人[23] 甲醇 不锈钢 60~140
    Gregori等人[24] 丙酮
    甲醇
    29~59
    50~89
    铜/不锈钢 传统型 25~500
    50~450
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  防冰用旋转热管的主要特点

    Table  3.   Main features of rotating heat pipes for anti-icing

    来源 工作液 充液率/% 工作温度/℃ 旋转热管材料 转速/
    103 (r/min)
    腔室结构 传热量/W
    Ponnappan等人[48] 纯水/甲醇 18.3/12.6 20~250 不锈钢 5~30 半锥角为1° 1033(最大值)/
    644(最大值)
    Gilchrist等人[25] −40~100 5~30 半锥角为0°~3.5° 95~207
    Gilchrist等人[27] 水/乙醇 −30~100 铜/不锈钢 5~20 半锥角为1°~5°
    或者阶梯形
    600~1700(水)
    400~750(乙醇)
    宣益民等人[28] 乙醇 −10~94 紫铜 1/2/3 全锥角为0.8° 500~3000
    连文磊等人[29] 4~53 1~10 半锥角为2° 200~600
    连文磊等人[30] 水/乙醇 6 1~5 全锥角为1° 200~1000
    连文磊等人[31] 乙醇 6~23 −20~110 紫铜 1~4.5 全锥角为0.8° 576~2048
    Du等人[32] 纯水 30 −20~85 黄铜 0.1(最大值) 半锥角为1° 75~200
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-10-12
  • 网络出版日期:  2024-03-22

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