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高室压大流量姿轨控发动机中高空模拟试验扩压器性能与结构方案设计

超力德 郭红杰 张元 徐勇 梁国柱

超力德, 郭红杰, 张元, 等. 高室压大流量姿轨控发动机中高空模拟试验扩压器性能与结构方案设计[J]. 航空动力学报, 2024, 39(8):20220956 doi: 10.13224/j.cnki.jasp.20220956
引用本文: 超力德, 郭红杰, 张元, 等. 高室压大流量姿轨控发动机中高空模拟试验扩压器性能与结构方案设计[J]. 航空动力学报, 2024, 39(8):20220956 doi: 10.13224/j.cnki.jasp.20220956
CHAO Lide, GUO Hongjie, ZHANG Yuan, et al. Performance and structural scheme design of the diffuser for attitude and orbit control engines with high chamber pressure and large flow rate in mid-high-altitude simulation test[J]. Journal of Aerospace Power, 2024, 39(8):20220956 doi: 10.13224/j.cnki.jasp.20220956
Citation: CHAO Lide, GUO Hongjie, ZHANG Yuan, et al. Performance and structural scheme design of the diffuser for attitude and orbit control engines with high chamber pressure and large flow rate in mid-high-altitude simulation test[J]. Journal of Aerospace Power, 2024, 39(8):20220956 doi: 10.13224/j.cnki.jasp.20220956

高室压大流量姿轨控发动机中高空模拟试验扩压器性能与结构方案设计

doi: 10.13224/j.cnki.jasp.20220956
详细信息
    作者简介:

    超力德(1984-),男,博士生,主要从事液体火箭发动机试验研究

    通讯作者:

    梁国柱(1966-),男,教授,博士,研究领域为火箭动力系统工作过程理论、设计与试验研究。E-mail:lgz@buaa.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: V231.1

Performance and structural scheme design of the diffuser for attitude and orbit control engines with high chamber pressure and large flow rate in mid-high-altitude simulation test

  • 摘要:

    采用热力计算方法、正激波理论、传热理论以及强度理论等方法,开展了液体姿轨控发动机与圆柱形扩压器性能与结构方案匹配设计和理论分析。从扩压器的性能、主要尺寸、换热方式、强度和稳定性校核等方面,给出了确定其性能与结构方案的设计计算方法和流程。计算给出了圆柱形扩压器面积比、燃烧室压力比、真空舱压力比以及燃气等熵指数对扩压器的主要尺寸和工作特性的影响曲线。针对推力为5000 N的某NTO/MMH液体姿轨控发动机的试验需求,设计了内径为1.1 m、长度为8 m、内壁厚度和冷却夹层厚度均为10 mm的圆柱形扩压器,工作包线显示其具备在发动机燃烧室压强为1~5 MPa、最大流量为1~3 kg/s且模拟工作高度为中高空30~60 km高度范围内开展相关试验的能力。研究表明,在扩压器入流和正激波前后引入燃气热力计算的设计方法可获得更加准确的冷却计算所需的燃气热物性参数,因考虑了高温燃气的化学反应从而获得更合理的性能与结构匹配方案,也便于确定已有扩压器的试验能力范围。

     

  • 图 1  高空模拟试验原理图

    Figure 1.  Schematic diagram of high-altitude simulation test

    图 2  圆柱形扩压器性能理论曲线

    Figure 2.  Theoretical performance curves for a cylindrical diffuser

    图 3  扩压器稳态工作时的物理模型

    Figure 3.  Physical model diagram of diffuser in steady state

    图 4  扩压器冷却计算单元

    Figure 4.  Diffuser cooling calculation unit

    图 5  扩压器性能与结构方案设计流程图

    Figure 5.  Diffuser performance and structural design flow chart

    图 6  $ {T}''_{\mathrm{f}} $$ {T}_{\mathrm{w},\mathrm{g}} $$ i $的变化曲线

    Figure 6.  Curves of $ {T}''_{\mathrm{f}} $ and $ {T}_{\mathrm{w},\mathrm{g}} $ with $ i $

    图 7  $ \Delta p $$ {v}_{\mathrm{f}} $$ {\delta }_{\mathrm{f}} $的变化曲线

    Figure 7.  Curves of $ \Delta p $ and $ {v}_{\mathrm{f}} $ with $ {\delta }_{\mathrm{f}} $

    图 8  $ {T}''_{\mathrm{f},100} $$ {T}_{\mathrm{w},\mathrm{g},100} $$ {\dot{m}}_{\mathrm{f}} $变化曲线

    Figure 8.  Curves of $ {T}''_{\mathrm{f},100} $ and $ {T}_{\mathrm{w},\mathrm{g},100} $ with $ {\dot{m}}_{\mathrm{f}} $

    图 9  $ {T}''_{\mathrm{f},100} $$ {T}_{\mathrm{w},\mathrm{g},100} $$ {\dot{m}}_{\mathrm{g}} $的变化曲线

    Figure 9.  Curves of $ {T}''_{\mathrm{f},100}$ and $ {T}_{\mathrm{w},\mathrm{g},100} $ with $ {\dot{m}}_{\mathrm{g}} $

    图 10  扩压器

    Figure 10.  Diffuser

    图 11  $ { ({p}_{\mathrm{c}}/{p}_{\mathrm{d}\mathrm{e}}) }_{\mathrm{m}\mathrm{i}\mathrm{n}} $$ {A}_{\mathrm{d}}/{A}_{\mathrm{t}} $的变化曲线

    Figure 11.  Curves of $ { ({p}_{\mathrm{c}}/{p}_{\mathrm{d}\mathrm{e}}) }_{\mathrm{m}\mathrm{i}\mathrm{n}} $ with $ {A}_{\mathrm{d}}/{A}_{\mathrm{t}} $

    图 12  $ {A}_{\mathrm{d}}/{A}_{\mathrm{t}} $$ Ma\mathrm{_e} $的变化曲线

    Figure 12.  Curves of $ {A}_{\mathrm{d}}/{A}_{\mathrm{t}} $ with $ Ma\mathrm{_{e\mathrm{ }}} $

    图 13  $ {p}_{0}/{p}_{\mathrm{d}\mathrm{e}} $$ {A}_{\mathrm{d}}/{A}_{\mathrm{t}} $的变化曲线

    Figure 13.  Curves of $ {p}_{0}/{p}_{\mathrm{d}\mathrm{e}} $ with $ {A}_{\mathrm{d}}/{A}_{\mathrm{t}} $

    图 14  $ {p}_{0}/{p}_{\mathrm{c}} $$ {A}_{\mathrm{d}}/{A}_{\mathrm{t}} $的变化曲线

    Figure 14.  Curves of $ {p}_{0}/{p}_{\mathrm{c}} $ with $ {A}_{\mathrm{d}}/{A}_{\mathrm{t}} $

    图 15  $ {p}_{0}/{p}_{\mathrm{d}\mathrm{e}} $$ {p}_{\mathrm{c}}/{p}_{\mathrm{d}\mathrm{e}} $的变化曲线

    Figure 15.  Curves of $ {p}_{0}/{p}_{\mathrm{d}\mathrm{e}} $ with $ {p}_{\mathrm{c}}/{p}_{\mathrm{d}\mathrm{e}} $

    表  1  常见扩压器类型

    Table  1.   Common types of diffusers

    类型 样式
    中心体式
    二次喉道式
    圆柱形
    圆柱-扩张形
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  扩压器入口正激波前后主要组分的质量分数

    Table  2.   Mass fraction of main components before and after normal shock at diffuser inlet

    名称 化学式 质量分数/%
    波前 波后
    氮气 N2 41.9 41.7
    二氧化碳 CO2 34.2 7.5
    水蒸汽 H2O 20.3 24.8
    一氧化碳 CO 0.8 18.2
    氢气 H2 2.6 1.6
    甲烷 CH4 0.2 0
    氢氧根 OH 0 3.2
    氧气 O2 0 1.3
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  扩压器内壁厚校核计算结果

    Table  3.   Diffuser inner wall thickness check result

    参数 20钢 钢0Cr18Ni9
    $ {\delta }_{\mathrm{w}} $/m 0.006 0.010
    $ A $/10−4 0.55 1.2
    $ B $/MPa 63.617 36.661
    $ \left[p\right] $/MPa 0.343 0.327
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  扩压器冷却设计计算结果

    Table  4.   Diffuser cooling design calculation results

    参数 20钢 钢0Cr18Ni9
    $ {T}_{\mathrm{w},\mathrm{g},100} $/K 306.95 314.55
    $ {T}_{\mathrm{w},\mathrm{f},100} $/K 303.55 303.55
    $ {T}''_{\mathrm{f},100}$/K 301.23 301.17
    $ {Ma}'_{\mathrm{f,100}} $ 0.297 0.297
    $ {T}'_{\mathrm{g},100} $/K 2453.37 2454.00
    $ {T}_{\mathrm{r},100} $/K 2466.22 2466.86
    $ {q}_{\mathrm{g},100} $/(MW/m2 0.029 0.029
    $ {q}_{\mathrm{w},100} $/(MW/m2 0.028 0.028
    $ {q}_{\mathrm{f},100} $/(MW/m2 0.027 0.028
    $ {\lambda }_{\mathrm{w}} $/(W/(m·K)) 49.80 15.20
    $ {h}_{\mathrm{g},100} $/(W/(m2·K)) 13.53 13.54
    $ {h}_{\mathrm{f},100} $/(W/(m2·K)) 11485.14 11482.53
    $ {\varepsilon }_{\mathrm{w},\mathrm{g}}/{\text{%}} $ 3.49 4.57
    $ {\varepsilon }_{\mathrm{w},\mathrm{f}}/{\text{%}} $ 4.32 0.67
    $ {\delta }_{\mathrm{w}} $/mm 6 6
    $ {\delta }_{{\mathrm{f}}} $/mm 10 10
    $ {v}_{\mathrm{f},100} $/(m/s) 1.85 1.85
    $ r $ 0.9 0.9
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  $ {\dot{{\boldsymbol{m}}}}_{\bf{g}}={\boldsymbol{1.8}} $ kg/s时喷管喉径与喷管出口直径计算结果

    Table  5.   Calculation results of nozzle throat diameter and nozzle outlet diameter when $ {\dot{{\boldsymbol{m}}}}_{\bf{g}}={\boldsymbol{1.8}} $ kg/s

    参数 $ {p}_{\mathrm{c}} $/MPa
    1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0
    $ {D}_{\mathrm{t}}/\mathrm{m} $ 0.0628 0.0517 0.0451 0.0407 0.0374 0.0339 0.0317 0.0299 0.0283
    $ {D}_{\mathrm{e}}/\mathrm{m} $−1000 Pa 0.5026 0.4789 0.4629 0.4509 0.4415 0.4341 0.4283 0.4237 0.4199
    $ {D}_{\mathrm{e}}/\mathrm{m} $−220 Pa 0.8991 0.8624 0.8428 0.8296 0.8195 0.8113 0.8043 0.7984 0.7931
    $ {D}_{\mathrm{e}}/\mathrm{m} $−131 Pa 1.1030 1.0687 1.0482 1.0333 1.0216 1.0118 1.0035 0.9963 0.9899
    $ {D}_{\mathrm{e}}/\mathrm{m} $−80 Pa 1.3525 1.3167 1.2933 1.2758 1.2619 1.2502 1.2401 1.2313 1.2234
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  pc=3 MPa时喷管喉径与喷管出口直径结果

    Table  6.   Results of nozzle throat diameter and nozzle outlet diameter when pc=3 MPa

    参数 $ {\dot{m}}_{\mathrm{g}}/{\mathrm{MPa}} $
    1.0 1.25 1.5 1.75 2.0 2.25 2.50 2.75 3.0
    $ {D}_{\mathrm{t}}/\mathrm{m} $ 0.0273 0.0305 0.0334 0.0361 0.0386 0.0409 0.0431 0.0452 0.0472
    $ {D}_{\mathrm{e}}/\mathrm{m} $−1000 Pa 0.3291 0.3680 0.4031 0.4354 0.4655 0.4937 0.5204 0.5458 0.5701
    $ {{D}_{\mathrm{e}}}/{\mathrm{m}}- $220 Pa 0.6108 0.6829 0.7481 0.8080 0.8638 0.9162 0.9658 1.0129 1.0580
    $ {D}_{\mathrm{e}}/\mathrm{m} $−131 Pa 0.7614 0.8513 0.9326 1.0073 1.0768 1.1422 1.2039 1.2627 1.3188
    $ {D}_{\mathrm{e}}/\mathrm{m} $−80 Pa 0.9405 1.0515 1.1519 1.2442 1.3301 1.4108 1.4871 1.5597 1.6290
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-12-15
  • 网络出版日期:  2024-02-29

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