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2007年  第22卷  第4期

Modelling internal air systems ingas turbine engines
2007, 22(4): 505-520.
Rotating-disc systems can be used to model,experimentally and computationally,the flow and heat transfer that occur inside the internal cooling-air systems of gas turbine engines.These rotating-disc systems have been used successfully to simplify and understand some of the complex flows that occur in internal-air systems,and designers have used this insight to improve the cooling effectiveness,thereby increasing the engine efficiency and reducing the emissions.In this review paper,three important cases are considered:hot-gas ingress;the pre-swirl system;and buoyancy-induced flow.Ingress,or ingestion,occurs when hot gas from the mainstream gas path is ingested into the wheel-space between the turbine disc and its adjacent casing.Rim seals are fitted at the periphery of the system,and sealing flow is used to reduce or prevent ingress.However,too much sealing air reduces the engine efficiency,and too little can cause serious overheating,resulting in damage to the turbine rim and blade roots.Although the flow is three-dimensional and unsteady,there are encouraging signs that simple ‘orifice models’ could be used to estimate the amount of ingress into the wheel-space.In a pre-swirl system,the cooling air for the gas-turbine blades is swirled by stationary nozzles,and the air is delivered to the blades via receiver holes in the rotating turbine disc.Swirling the air reduces its temperature relative to the rotating blades,and the designer needs to calculate the air temperature and pressure drop in the system.The designer also needs to calculate the effect of this swirling flow on the heat transfer from the turbine disc to the air,as this has a significant effect on the temperature distribution and stresses in the disc.Recent experimental and computational studies have given a better understanding of the flow and heat transfer in these systems.Buoyancy-induced flow occurs in the cavity between two co-rotating compressor discs when the temperature of the discs is higher than that of the air in the cavity.Coriolis forces create cyclonic and anti-cyclonic circulation inside the cavity and,as such flows are three-dimensional and unsteady,the heat transfer from the discs to the air is difficult either to compute or to measure.The flow also tends to be unstable and one flow structure can change quasi-randomly to another,which makes it hard for designers of aero-engines to calculate the transient temperature changes and thermal stresses in the discs during take-off,cruise and landing conditions.Although recent CFD research has been successful in computing these flows,it will be many years before the designer can rely on computations unless they have been validated on reliable experimental data.
LES of film cooling for different jet fluids
P. Renze, W. Schrder, M. Meinke
2007, 22(4): 521-530.
The present paper investigates the impact of the velocity and density ratio on the turbulent mixing process in gas turbine blade film cooling.A cooling fluid is injected from an inclined pipe at α=30° into a turbulent boundary layer profile at a freestream Reynolds number of Re∞=400000.This jet-in-a-crossflow(JICF) problem is investigated using large-eddy simulations(LES).The governing equations comprise the Navier-Stokes equations plus additional transport equations for several species to simulate a non-reacting gas mixture.A variation of the density ratio is simulated by the heat-mass transfer analogy,i.e.,gases of different density are effused into an an air crossflow at a constant temperature.An efficient large-eddy simulation method for low subsonic flows based on an implicit dual time-stepping scheme combined with low Mach number preconditioning is applied.The numerical results and experimental velocity data measured using two-component particle-image velocimetry (PIV) are in excellent agreement.The results show the dynamics of the flow field in the vicinity of the jet hole,i.e.,the recirculation region and the inclination of the shear layers,to be mainly determined by the velocity ratio.However,evaluating the cooling efficiency downstream of the jet hole the mass flux ratio proves to be the dominant similarity parameter,i.e.,the density ratio between the fluids and the velocity ratio have to be considered.
Enhancing the efectiveness of film cooling
TomI-P. Shih, Sang kwon Na
2007, 22(4): 531-539.
Advanced gas turbine stages are designed to operate at increasingly higher inlet temperatures to increase thermal efficiency and specific power output.To maintain durability and reasonable life,film cooling is needed in addition to internal cooling,especially for the first stage.Film cooling lowers material temperature by forced convection inside film-cooling holes and by forming a layer of coolant about component surfaces to insulate them from the hot gases.Unfortunately,each cooling jet forms a pair of counter-rotating vortices that entrains hot gas and causes the film-cooling jet to lift off from the surface that it is intended to protect.This paper gives an overview of efforts to enhance the effectiveness of film-cooling.This paper also describes two new design concepts.One design concept seeks to minimize the entrainment of hot gases underneath of film-cooling jets by using flow-aligned blockers.The other design concept shifts the interaction between the approaching hot gas and the cooling jet to occur further above the surface by using an upstream ramp.For both design concepts,computational fluid dynamics results are presented to examine their usefulness in enhancing film-cooling effectiveness.
陶智, 吕东, 丁水汀, 徐国强
2007, 22(4): 540-546.
用数值模拟的方法, 研究了倾斜出气孔层板结构最小单元体内扰流柱直径对于层板内流阻和换热的影响.采用了非结构化网格, 并对气流转角较大区域做了局部加密;选择k-ε湍流模型方程, 配以壁面函数率, 求解稳态无旋转的层板;采用了流体域与固体域耦合求解法计算耦合换热.给出了计算结果并分析了流动和换热情况.研究结果表明适当增加扰流柱直径有利于降低流阻、提高冷却效率.
李建中, 王家骅
2007, 22(4): 547-553.
为了研究不同结构强化燃烧装置对煤油/空气混合物爆震起爆过程的影响, 选择适应于煤油/空气气动阀式脉冲爆震发动机使用的强化燃烧装置, 设计加工了几种不同结构的强化燃烧装置, 在内径100mm的爆震管内进行大量爆震试验.分析了不同结构强化燃烧装置的工作机理, 比较了不同强化燃烧装置对煤油/空气混合物爆震起爆过程的影响.研究结果为优化设计强化燃烧装置, 优化设计煤油/空气气动阀式脉冲爆震发动机原理样机提供了初步理论基础.
彭云晖, 林宇震, 刘高恩
2007, 22(4): 554-558.
针对高温升燃烧室对出口温度分布系数降低的需求, 采用三头部矩形燃烧室, 对三种不同的三旋流器头部组合方案进行了出口温度分布的试验, 重点研究了三旋流器旋向和头部当量比对燃烧室出口温度分布的影响.出口温度的测试方法采用了燃气分析法.试验结果表明外旋流器与中间旋流器旋向相反时, 出口温度分布均匀;头部当量比小, 出口温度分布均匀.头部当量比应与旋流器旋向共同考虑, 才能优化燃烧室出口温度分布系数.
王慧, 侯凌云
2007, 22(4): 559-564.
数值模拟碳氢富燃燃气与空气二维超声速剪切流动的湍流燃烧.NND对流项差分格式高精度捕捉激波, B-L和普朗特混合长度模型模拟湍流粘性系数, Arrhenius反应动力学公式计算化学反应速率, 模拟非平衡态燃烧.计算的壁面压力值较好地符合了实验值.分析了剪切流驻焰稳定的波系结构, 从预测的流动参数和组分浓度分布判断燃烧状况的好坏, 从而为改善优化燃烧室结构提供工程参考.
Hybrid system-a promising way solving future energy problems
2007, 22(4): 565-576.
With the increasing demand for electricity,an efficiency improvement and thereby reduced CO2 emissions of the power plants are expected in order to reach the goals set in the Kyoto protocol.In comparison to conventional systems,the hybrid-systems with the use of synergetic effects offer the possibility to provide a substantial contribution to spare our natural resources and protect our environment.Combined Cycle Power Plants belongs innately hybrid system in the centralized energy market.They can provide large amounts of power and have a quick start-up time.The MGT/FC hybrid system is quite promising in the decentralized energy market.It is widely used in stand-alone applications.Furthermore,the combination of fossil and renewable power plant technologies contains a large synergy potential to increase the efficiency of processes for power plants.New materials,innovative cooling technology,new combustion concepts and optimized production methods are needed to make the potential of these new technologies accessible for a quantum leap in the efficiency.For this it needs considerable research work and good coordinated research projects between the state,industry,research laboratories and universities.
王占学, 王鹏, 乔渭阳, 蔡元虎
2007, 22(4): 577-582.
将基于部件匹配技术的涡扇发动机非设计点性能计算模型和基于李亚普诺夫稳定性理论的压缩部件气动稳定性评定模型有机的耦合, 实现了发动机整机环境下的压缩部件气动稳定性评定, 使得该模型成为一种实用的涡扇发动机压缩部件气动稳定性分析模型.以某型涡扇发动机为例, 计算比较了均匀进气和畸变进气时发动机整机环境和单独部件评定时风扇部件稳定工作边界的异同, 从计算结果可以看到, 均匀进气条件下, 在发动机环境下和单独部件环境下所得到的风扇部件稳定工作边界变化不大;而畸变进气条件下, 同样的进口畸变度, 发动机环境下风扇的稳定裕度损失比单独部件下风扇的稳定裕度损失都小, 即在发动机环境下评定风扇稳定性时, 风扇对进气温度畸变不敏感, 而在单独部件环境下评定时, 风扇对进气畸变比较敏感.
肖红林, 罗纪生
2007, 22(4): 583-587.
在用大涡模拟的方法计算具有强剪切的槽道湍流时, 常用的亚格子应力模型, 包括考虑壁面修正的模型, 都会出现平均流剖面偏高的现象.这表明在壁面附近亚格子应力模型还不能描述实际情况.针对这一问题, 修正了亚格子雷诺应力模型的壁面函数, 得到了较好的计算结果.用修正后的模型计算出的平均速度分布、均方根速度的分布以及雷诺应力的分布, 均与直接数值模拟(DNS)的结果吻合较好.
沙江, 徐惊雷, 林春峰, 李念, 张堃元
2007, 22(4): 588-593.
对不同出口间距零质量射流组的流场结构进行了PIV实验.采用相位锁定技术测量了周期内不同相位的瞬时流场速度矢量, 显示了两股射流涡对之间相互作用、融合成为一股射流的全过程.发现射流出口间距越大, 射流组融合完成所需的时间、空间历程越长.在射流组融合完成后的下游截面上, 速度分布和单射流相似, 具有自模性.虽然融合未完成前各截面不存在整体自模性, 但两股射流外侧仍满足自模性.
Mechanical behavior and properties of fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites for high temperature use
Chongdu Cho, Qiang Pan, Sangkyo Lee
2007, 22(4): 594-601.
Ceramics can keep their mechanical characteristics up to 2 000℃ or higher.In this paper,A model to predict ultimate strength of continuous fiber-reinforced brittle matrix composites is developed.A statistical theory for the strength of a uni-axially fiber-reinforced brittle matrix composite is presented.Also a semi-empirical frictional heating method for estimating in-situ interfacial shear in fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites was improved.Local uneven fiber packing variation as well as uneven micro-damage during fatigue can be expected to have effects on the composites:generation of frictional heating,thermal gradients,and residual stresses around local fiber breaks.This study examined those engineering interests by the finite element method.
徐颖, 温卫东, 崔海涛
2007, 22(4): 602-607.
针对疲劳载荷作用下的纤维增强复合材料层合板, 发展了疲劳逐渐累积损伤寿命预测方法.该方法主要包括应力分析、失效分析及材料性能下降三部分.其中, 应力分析是通过三维有限元数值分析技术实现的;失效分析采用改进的Hashin静态失效准则判断疲劳损伤的产生和扩展;材料性能是基于突降和渐降两种准则进行退化的.所发展的方法可以预测不同铺层顺序、不同几何尺寸的复合材料层合结构在疲劳载荷下的损伤起始、扩展、直至结构最终破坏整个过程, 并预测其疲劳寿命.同时, 在ANSYS软件平台上, 开发了相应的参数化复合材料层板结构的疲劳逐渐损伤分析程序.与已有文献结果比较, 误差在10%以内.
王梅, 江和甫, 吕文林
2007, 22(4): 608-613.
研究了前排静子叶片的尾流对后排转子叶片振动的影响.采用参数多项式方法和振荡流体力学理论, 求解静子叶片后的尾流场及尾流场作用下转子叶片通道内的非定常流场.把非定常气动分析给出的压力场, 转化为结构动力分析中的载荷压力场形式.根据试验结果得出响应分析中的阻尼, 先求解出各阶谐波作用下转子叶片的响应结果, 再把各阶响应结果进行叠加, 得到总响应.从流场求解到响应求解, 为工程应用初步建立起了一个尾流激振情况下叶片振动应力预估的半经验方法.
陈衍茂, 刘济科
2007, 22(4): 614-618.
研究了一类含立方非线性二元机翼颤振系统的分岔现象.应用Hopf分岔定理验证了系统在颤振临界点必发生Hopf分岔.利用中心流形定理将系统降维, 然后应用Hopf分叉的复数正规形法判别了极限环的稳定性, 所得结果与数值解吻合.
何允钦, 梁国柱
2007, 22(4): 619-624.
提出了一种新的软件模型根据发动机设计人员的设计/仿真任务动态地组合算法组件得到所需的设计/仿真算法, 模型可以灵活地胜任发动机设计领域变化多样的设计/仿真计算任务, 并且可以使整个软件系统具有很好的扩展性.该研究意图在于创建一个规范、开放的算法组件接口体系, 在此基础上建立一个可重用、可扩展的算法组件库和一个算法组件动态组合机制, 从而将设计人员编制设计/仿真算法的任务转变成利用已有算法组件动态地组合出所需的设计/仿真算法.该模型让设计人员在设计/仿真工作中重用算法组件库中已有的算法成果, 同时又保持了设计人员的自主性, 使设计人员的工作变得更加容易和高效.
李大鹏, 潘余, 吴继平, 刘卫东, 王振国
2007, 22(4): 625-631.
在模拟飞行马赫数Ma=6, 高度25km的条件下, 针对可调喷口液体碳氢燃料双模态冲压模型发动机进行了直连式试验研究.结果表明借助喷口可调机构, 可以提高模型发动机的点火性能和推力性能, 并且可以在低当量比下实现亚燃模态, 而一旦亚燃阶段实现火焰维持, 通过喷口截面的调节, 模型发动机可以平稳地实现亚燃/超燃间的模态转换过程.采用可调喷口结构对于简化几何完全可调双模态冲压发动机的设计、拓宽现有固定几何双模态冲压发动机的工作范围都具有一定参考价值.
韩非, 刘宇
2007, 22(4): 632-638.
为了解塞式喷管发动机在不同压比下工作时的再生冷却换热特性, 对一试验用塞式喷管发动机建立三维计算模型, 采用数值模拟的方法, 得到了不同压比下再生冷却塞锥壁面以及内部截面的压强、热流密度和温度的分布曲线和云图.计算过程中采用一阶迎风格式离散控制方程.计算结果表明塞式喷管发动机在较低压比的工况下工作时, 塞锥受热状况较为恶劣, 塞锥壁面出现压强和温度的峰值, 该截面内部的温度和温度梯度达到最大.
王一白, 王长辉, 刘宇, 覃粒子
2007, 22(4): 639-644.
采用NND差分格式求解三维平均雷诺N-S方程的数值方法, 对多单元圆转方塞式喷管的性能进行了计算.首先比较了钟型喷管、二维喷管、圆转方喷管、方形喉部方形出口喷管的流动特点和性能, 然后研究了转方位置、转方后型面和出口圆角对圆转方内喷管性能的影响以及圆转方结构型式、内喷管倾角、塞锥型面变化对塞式喷管性能的影响, 并且给出了具有较高性能的多单元圆转方塞式喷管设计方案.研究结论对于多单元圆转方塞式喷管的优化设计有一定的参考作用.
Applications of numerical optimization techniques to design of axial compressor blades
Choon-Man Jang, Kwang-Yong Kim
2007, 22(4): 645-652.
This paper describes the shape optimization of NASA rotor 37 and rotor and stator blades in a single-stage transonic axial compressor.Shape optimization of the blades operating at the design flow condition has been performed using the response surface method and three-dimensional Navier-Stokes analysis.Thin-layer approximation is introduced to the Navier-Stokes equations,and an explicit Runge-Kutta scheme is used to solve the governing equations.The three design variables,blade sweep,lean and skew,are introduced to optimize the three-dimensional stacking line of the blades.The objective function of the shape optimization is an adiabatic efficiency.Throughout the optimization of rotor and stator blades, optimal blade shape can be obtained.It is noted the increase of adiabatic efficiency by optimization of the blade shape with the stacking line in the single-stage transonic axial compressor is more effective in a rotor blade rather than a stator blade because of the large deformation of blade shape in the stator blade.
赵晓路, 唐菲
2007, 22(4): 653-659.
对国外短周期涡轮实验技术的发展及其应用范围开拓的情况进行了综述和分析.比较了长短周期涡轮实验技术各自的优点和不足.近年来, 在发展高性能航空发动机的需求带动下, 短周期涡轮实验技术正在努力克服自身的薄弱环节, 力争达到长周期涡轮实验技术所能达到的性能测试精度.其发展目标是争取部分替代长周期涡轮实验, 由单纯机理性实验平台向部件性能研发平台扩展.同时, 作为重要的基础研究平台, 短周期涡轮实验台在机理研究领域也有所拓宽, 开始被应用于新设计理念的验证、CFD设计分析软件的校验等新的领域.
靳军, 刘波, 南向谊, 陈云永
2007, 22(4): 660-665.
应用NURBS技术构造超声速叶型, 采用两个控制参数调整叶栅前缘椭圆弧的几何形状, 来探索不同的前缘构型对超声速叶型气动性能的影响效应;通过对比分析调整每个参数所得的一系列叶栅的流场计算结果, 发现椭圆弧的形状控制因子对超声速叶栅的前缘激波和气流流动状况具有一定的改善效果, 同时在保证叶栅气动弦长基本不变的情况下, 存在某个椭圆弧形状控制因子和方向控制因子的匹配能够使叶栅的气动性能达到最佳.
杨茹萍, 邓四二, 李建华, 马富建
2007, 22(4): 666-671.
基于相似理论分析了轴承保持架模型的动力相似判据, 根据模态分析理论得出主要模态参数的相似比, 制作放尺比3∶1的保持架模型, 进行了保持架模型动态特性试验, 由试验结果得到实物保持架的固有频率.并通过轴承组件动态响应试验进行了验证.